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元旦的由来及风俗习惯

来源:www.sjkhdkf.com 发布时间:2018/01/01

远古的人类并没有年、月、日的概念,人们只知道根据太阳的升起和落下来生活。“日出而作,日落而息”,人们把一昼一夜当作一“日”。
Ancient human beings have no concept of years, months, and days. People only know the rise and fall of the sun. "Sunrise, sunset and the night as a day".
后来,人们发现天上的月亮有盈亏圆缺的变化,在时间上是有规律的,于是就把从圆到缺的一个周期称作“月”。
Later, people find that the moon waxes and wanes the change in time is regular, so put a cycle from a circle called "missing month".
古人类还发现,自然气候的寒热温凉变化,有一种周而复始的规律,于是逐渐形成了更长的时间概念,那就是“年”。
Ancient people also found that natural climate cold hot warm and cool change, there is a cycle of the law, then gradually formed a longer time concept, that is "the year".
那么,将哪一天作为一年的开始呢?这就需要编制一种历法来计算一年的时间了。

So, which day will be the beginning of the year? This requires a calendar to calculate the year's time.

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大约在公元前1万年左右,古埃及人已由游牧改为农耕,定居在尼罗河两岸,他们的农业收成与尼罗河的是否发生洪水有很大关系。古埃及人从长期的观察中发现,尼罗河泛滥的时间是有规律的,他们就把这个时间每次都记录在竹竿上,从中得知两次泛滥时间之间大约相隔365天,同时还发现,当尼罗河初涨的潮头来到今天开罗城附近的时候,也正好是太阳与天狼星同时从地平线上升起的时候。于是,古埃及人便把这一天定为一年的开始。这是“元旦”最早的由来。
Around 10 thousand B.C., the ancient Egyptians had changed from nomadic farming to farming on the Nile River, and their agricultural harvest had much to do with whether the Nile floods. The ancient Egyptians discovered from the long-term observation, the Nile flood time is the law, they put this time are recorded on a bamboo pole, from the two flood time between about 365 days apart, it is also found that when the tide came up the Nile today when it was near the city. When the sun and Sirius also rises from the horizon. So the ancient Egyptians set the day as the beginning of the year. This is the earliest origin of "New Year's Day".
元旦在我国汉语中是一个合成词,“元”是开始或第一的意思,如各朝纪元的第一年叫“元年”,“一元复始”等;“旦”是一个象形字,表示太阳从地平线上升起。我国殷商时代的青铜器上就有“旦”的象形字了。中国的“元旦”一词,最早出现于《晋书》:“颛(顼)(ZHUANXU)帝以孟夏正月为元,其实正朔元旦之春”的诗中。南北朝时,南朝萧子云的《介雅》诗中也有“四季新元旦,万寿初春朝”的记载。
New year's day in China, Chinese is a compound word "Yuan" is the beginning or the first meaning, such as the first year of the Dynasties era is called "the first year", "as the new year begins"; "Dan" is a pictograph, said the sun rises from the horizon. In China, the Shang Dynasty bronzes have "Dan" the pictograph. Chinese "New Year's Day", first appeared in "Jin Shu": "(Zhuan Xu) (ZHUANXU) by Emperor Meng Xia of the month for the new year's day yuan, actually zhengshuo spring" in the poem. In the southern and Northern Dynasties, there was a record of "the new year's new year's new year's day, the first spring of life" in the poems of Xiao Ziyun in the Southern Dynasty.
由于各国的历法不同,确定元旦的时间也不相同。古埃及人以尼罗河涨水的这一天为一年的岁首。居住在美洲北部的爱斯基摩人则把第一场雪的那一天作为元旦。印尼的凯拉比特族人以每年候鸟第一次飞来的那一天作为元旦。乌干达人住在炎热的非洲,一年只有干湿两季之分,他们把一季(6个月)作为一年,因此他们每年有两个元旦。
Because of the different calendar of countries, the time of new year's new year is different. The ancient Egyptians in the Nile flooded this day for the year. The Eskimos living in the north of the Americas used the day of the first snow as a new year's day. The Kayla tribe in Indonesia took the first day of each year as a new year's bird. The Ugandans live in hot Africa, with only two seasons dry and wet a year. They take a season (6 months) for a year, so they have two new year's day.
我国历代所定元旦的日期也不一致。我国古代都用农历,夏代定为正月初一;殷代定为十二月初一;周代定为十一月初一;秦朝定为十月初一;汉武帝接受司马迁的建议创造了科学的《太初历》,即农历,规定正月初一为元旦新年,一直沿用至近代。
The dates of the new year's day in our country are also different. In ancient China with the lunar calendar, as is a month at the beginning of Xia Dynasty; Yin and set the twelfth for early December to early November; Zhou Dai; Qin Zhaoding is at the beginning of October; the emperor accepted Sima Qian's proposal to create a scientific "tachu calendar", namely the lunar calendar, is specified at the beginning of the month a new year for the new year's day, has been according to the modern.
为什么现在我国规定公历1月1日为元旦而不是正月初一为元旦呢?辛亥革命胜利后孙中山宣布中国改用世界通用的阳历(也叫公历),1月1日为岁首,老百姓叫做“阳历年”。那么正月初一的老元旦怎么办呢?为了尊重民族习惯,将农历(夏历)改称为阴历,为不使两个“元旦”相混淆,将农历正月初一的老元旦定名为“春节”,所以从这以后才有了“春节”,其实古代并无这一说法。新中国成立前3天,1949年9月27日,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议通过使用“公元纪年法”,把阳历的1月1日正式定为元旦,与国际通行的公历同步,原来的农历正月初一定名为“春节”。
Why does our country stipulate that the Gregorian calendar is the new year's day in January 1st instead of the first month of the first month of the month? After the victory of the revolution Sun Zhongshan announced China changed to the world universal calendar (also called the Gregorian calendar), January 1st year, people called "the solar year". So what about the old new year's new year at the beginning of the month? In order to respect the national habits, renamed the lunar calendar (Xia Li) as the lunar calendar, in order not to confuse the two new year's day with the name of "the Spring Festival" in the 1th day of the first month of the Chinese lunar calendar, so there was "Spring Festival" since then. 3 days ago, the new China was founded in September 27, 1949, the first plenary session of Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference through the use of "the annals of the year", the Gregorian calendar in January 1st officially designated as the new year's day, synchronized with the international calendar, the lunar month is the beginning of the original must be called the spring festival".
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